PUNJAB GOVT-PPSC-PATWARI-PSSSB-PSEB-Indian Polity and Fundamental Rights in Indian Constitution

Originally, the Constitution provided for seven Fundamental Rights / मूलतः, संविधान में सात मौलिक अधिकारों के लिए प्रदान किया:-
1. Right to equality (Articles 14–18) 
2. Right to freedom (Articles 19–22) 
3. Right against exploitation (Articles 23–24) 
4. Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25–28) 
5. Cultural and educational rights (Articles 29–30) 
6. Right to property (Article 31) 
7. Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32) 
The right to property was deleted from the Fundamental Rights by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978. It is made a legal right under Article 300-A of the Constitution. So, at present, there are only six Fundamental Rights. 


•Parliament is the supreme legislative body of a country.
Parliament comprises of:(Art.79)b)Lok Sabha (House of the People)
c)Rajya Sabha (Council of States)


-Lok Sabha, as the name itself signifies, is the body of representatives of the people.

-It is the Lower House of Parliament.

-Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies.

-They hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers.

-The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is 552.

-Which is made up by election of upto 530 members to represent the States, upto 20 members to represent the Union Territories. –
-Two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the Hon’ble President, if,  in his/her opinion, that community is not adequately represented in the House.
-An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies’ boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of which was conducted in 2001.

-In India, such Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times – in 1952 under the Delimitation Commission Act, 1952, in 1963 under Delimitation Commission Act, 1962, in 1973 under Delimitation Act, 1972 and in 2002 under Delimitation Act, 2002.
-The Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952.

-Constitution 61st Amendment Act (1987) has reduced the Age of voting from 21 to 18 years.

Qualifications for Lok Sabaha:(Art.-84)
-He / She should be a citizen of India, and must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
-He / She should not be less than 25 years of age.
-He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
-He / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law; and
-He / She should have his/her name in the electoral rolls in any part of the country.
Speaker and Deputy Speaker:(Art.-93)
– In the Lok Sabha, both presiding officers—the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker- are elected from among its members by a simple majority of members present and voting in the House.

-Shri G. V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha (15 May 1952– 27 February 1956)

-Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first Deputy Speaker (30 May 1952 – 7 March 1956).

-Sumitra Mahajan was elected as the speaker in the 16th Lok Sabha, and is its second woman speaker and

-Shri M. Thambidurai as the deputy speaker.
Powers of Lok Sabha:
-Motions of no confidence against the government can be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha.
-Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, and upon being passed, are sent to the Rajya Sabha, where it can be deliberated on for up to 14 days.

Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:

Budget session: February to May.

Monsoon session: July to September.

Winter session: November to mid December.

Question Hour:

-The first hour of every sitting is called Question Hour.

Zero Hour:

-The time immediately following the Question Hour has come to be known as “Zero Hour”.

-It starts at around 12 noon and members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise issues of importance during this time.

Parliamentary Committees:

There are primarily two kinds of parliamentary committees based on their nature –

-Parliament Standing Committees (PSC) – Permanent in nature, reconstituted time to time with every new election.

-Ad hoc Committees – Created for specific purpose and ceases to exist when that purpose is achieved.