Cell Biology :Tissue , Organ & Organ System, Genetics, Plant
Classification, Diversity, Ecology, Life Process: Photosynthesis, Respiration, Circulation,
Movement etc, Basics of Biochemistry.
(Zoology):- Animal Cell & Tissue, Organ System, Heredity & Variation, Animal
Classification, Micro Organism, Insects & Rodents.
Chapter-3 (Agriculture):- General Agricultural, Statics of Indian Agriculture (Cereals &
Pulses), Elementary entomology, Plant Protection, Agricultural Economics, Crops
Chapter -1 (Botany)
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes with tissue systems made of various cell types that carry out specific functions.
Plant tissue systems fall into one of two general types: meristematic tissue and permanent (or non-meristematic)
tissue. Cells of the meristematic tissue are found in meristems, which are plant regions of continuous cell division and
growth. Meristematic tissue cells are either undifferentiated or incompletely differentiated, and they continue to
divide and contribute to the growth of the plant. In contrast, permanent tissue consists of plant cells that are no
longer actively dividing.
Meristematic tissues consist of three types
Apical meristems contain meristematic tissue located at the tips of stems and roots, which enable a plant to extend
Lateral meristems facilitate growth in thickness or girth in a maturing plant.
Intercalary meristems occur only in monocots, at the bases of leaf blades and at nodes (the areas where leaves
attach to a stem). This tissue enables the monocot leaf blade to increase in length from the leaf base; for example, it
allows lawn grass leaves to elongate even after repeated mowing.
Permanent tissues in a plant are those tissues that contain nondividing cells. The cells are also modified to perform
specific functions in the plants. The cells of the permanent tissue are derived from the meristematic tissue.