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PPSC-PATWARI-PSSSB-PUDA-NTPC-List of World Heritage Sites in India: State wise & Facts-2020

List of World Heritage Sites in India: State wise & Facts

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are important places of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

There are 38 World Heritage Sites located in India. These include 30 cultural sites, seven natural sites and one mixed-criteria site.India has the sixth largest number of sites in the world.

♦Maharashtra (5 Heritage site)

  • Ajanta Caves (World Heritage Tag-1983): The Ajanta Caves are Budhhists caves built in two phases. The first, was from the reign of Emperor Ashoka. The second, further additions were made during the 5th and 6th centuries AD of the Gupta period. The caves depict richly decorated fresco paintings, reminiscent of the Sigiriya paintings and sculptures in Sri Lanka. There are 31 rock-cut cave monuments which are unique representations of the religious art of Budhhism.
  • Ellora Caves (World Heritage Tag-1983): The Ellora Caves, also known as the Ellora Complex, are a cultural mix of religious arts of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. 34 monasteries and temples sculpted contiguously into rock walls of a high basalt cliff are seen along a length of 2 kilometres (1.2 mi). Dated to 600 to 1000 AD, they are a reflection of artistic creation of the ancient civilization of India.
  • Elephanta Caves (World Heritage Tag-1987): The Elephanta Caves are a network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri (literally “the city of caves”) in Mumbai Harbour.consists of two groups of caves — the first is a large group of five Hindu caves, the second, a smaller group of two Buddhist caves.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (World Heritage Tag-2004): The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is a historic railway station in Mumbai, which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. It is one of the busiest railway stations in India, and serves Central Railway trains terminating in Mumbai as well as the Mumbai Suburban Railway.
  • The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai (World Heritage Tag-2018): This is a collection of the Victorian Gothic buildings and Art Deco buildings. They are the Bombay High Court, Rajabai Clock Tower, Eros Cinema and the University of Mumbai

♦Uttar Pradesh (3 Heritage site

  • Agra Fort (World Heritage Tag-1983): They were built from the 16th century onward until the early 18th century. This corresponds to Emperor Akbar’s reign in the 16th century to that of Aurangzeb in the early part of the 18th century, including the contributions made during the reign of Jahangir and Shahjahan of the Moghul Rule in India.
  • Taj Mahal (World Heritage Tag-1983): The Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is a mausoleum — a funerary mosque. It was built by Emperor Shahjahan in memory of his third wife Begum Mumtaz Mahal who had died in 1631.
  • Fatehpur Sikri (World Heritage Tag-1986) : Fatehpur Sikri, “the City of Victory,” was built during the second half of the 16th century by the Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556–1605). It was the capital of the Empire and seat of the grand Mughal court but only for 14 years.

♦Odisha (1 Heritage site)

  • Sun Temple (World Heritage Tag-1984): The Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple (also known as the “Black Pagoda”), at Konark, in Odisha. Located on the east coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Mahanadi Delta, it is built in the form of the chariot of Surya (Arka), the sun god with 24 wheels, and is heavily decorated with symbolic stone carvings and led by a team of six horses.

Tamil Nadu (2 Heritage site,2 Shared Site )

  • Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (World Heritage Tag-1984): The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, in Tamil Nadu, about 58 km (36 mi) from Chennai, were built by the Pallava kings in the 7th and 8th centuries. The town has gained prominence under the rule of Mamalla. These monuments have been carved out of rock along the Coromandel coast. The temple town has approximately forty monuments, including the largest open-air bas-relief in the world.
  • Great Living Chola Temples (World Heritage Tag-1987): The Great Living Chola Temples, built by kings of the Chola Empire stretched over all of Tamil Nadu. This cultural heritage site includes three great temples of the 11th and 12th centuries namely, the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram.
  • Mountain Railways of India, Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Ooty (World Heritage Tag-2005): Nilgiri Mountain Railway followed suite as an extension to the site in 2005

Note: Western Ghat, Mountain Railways of India shared site with other state

♦Assam (2 Heritage site)

  • Kaziranga National Park (World Heritage Tag-1985): It was first established as a reserved forest in 1908 to protect the dwindling numbers of rhinoceros. It underwent several transformations over the years, as The Kaziranga Game Sanctuary in 1916, renamed Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950, and declared a national park in 1974. Kaziranga National Park is the name to exemplify the most popular conservation efforts to save the endangered species like one-horned rhinoceros in India.
  • Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (World Heritage Tag-1985): The Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, located in the northeastern state of Assam covers an area of 50,000 hectares (120,000 acres) in the plains of the Manas River in the foothills of the Himalayas, on the border with Bhutan (contiguous with the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in Bhutan). In 1907, it was declared a reserve forest, a sanctuary in 1928, and became a tiger reserve in 1973 as part of “Project Tiger” and a World Heritage Site in December 1985.

Note: Since 1992, the sanctuary was listed under “The World Heritage in Danger” but removed in 2011 after significant conservation efforts.

♦Rajasthan (4 Heritage site)

  • Keoladeo National Park (World Heritage Tag-1985): The Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur is located within the Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest Biogeographical Province. It was declared a national park in 1982. In 1900 it was a duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajasof Bharatpur, then became a bird sanctuary in 1956, with the Maharajas exercising shooting rights until 1972. It was recorded as a Ramsar Wetland site in 1981.
  • The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (World Heritage Tag-2010): The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is a collection of architectural astronomical instruments, built by Maharaja (King) Jai Singh II at his then new capital of Jaipur between 1727 and 1734. It is modelled after the one that he had built at the Mughal capital of Delhi. He had constructed a total of five such facilities at different locations, including the ones at Delhi and Jaipur.
  • Hill Forts of Rajasthan (World Heritage Tag-2013):  Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Ranthambhore, Amber Sub-Cluster, Jaisalmer, Gagron
  • Jaipur (World Heritage Tag-2013):  The fortified city of Jaipur, in India’s northwestern state of Rajasthan was founded in 1727 by Sawai Jai Singh II. Unlike other cities in the region located in hilly terrain, Jaipur was established on the plain and built according to a grid plan interpreted in the light of Vedic architecture. The streets feature continuous colonnaded businesses that intersect in the centre, creating large public squares called chaupars. Markets, stalls, residences and temples built along the main streets have uniform facades.

♦GOA (1 Heritage site)

  • Churches and Convents of Goa (World Heritage Tag-1986): The Churches and Convents of Goa are monuments inscribed by UNESCO under the World Heritage List in 1986 as cultural property, under criteria (ii),(iv) and (vi), which were built by the Portuguese colonial rulers of Goa between the 16th and 18th centuries. These monuments are mainly in the former capital of Velha Goa.

♦Madhya Pradesh (3 Heritage site)

  • Khajuraho Group of Monuments (World Heritage Tag-1986): The Khajuraho Group of Monuments attributed to the Chandela dynasty which, under sovereignty of Gurjar Pratihars reached its glory. The ensemble of monuments that have survived belong to the Hindu and Jain Religious practices with striking fusion of sculpture and architecture.
  • Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (World Heritage Tag-1989): The Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, located 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh are a group of Buddhist monuments dated between 200 BC and 100 BC. The site, however, has been conjectured to have been developed in the 3rd century BC, when Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire ruled. The principal monument is Stupa 1 dated to the 2nd century and 1st century BC.
  • Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (World Heritage Tag-1989): The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka described in the UNESCO Inscription as “the site complex … a magnificent repository of rock paintings within natural rock shelters” is located in the foothills of the Vindhya range of hills in the Central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

♦Karnataka (2 Heritage site, 1 Shared site )

  • Group of Monuments at Hampi (World Heritage Tag-1986) Ballari district: The Group of Monuments at Hampi comprise a sombre but ostentatious Hampi town, on the banks of the river Tungabhadra in Karnataka. Hampi subsumes the ruins of Vijayanagara, which was the former capital of the powerful Vijayanagara Empire. Dravidian temples and palaces abound in Hampi. These won the admiration of travellers between the 14th and 16th centuries. Hampi, as an important Hindu and Jain religious centre.
  • Group of Monuments at Pattadakal, Bagalkot District (World Heritage Tag-1987): This group of temples, the Virupaksha Temple, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband’s (King Vikramaditya II) victory over the Pallava kings from the south, is considered the most outstanding architectural edifice (This is different from the Virupaksha Temple at Hampi.) These are a remarkable combination of temples built by the Chalukya Dynasty in the 6th to the 8th century at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal, the latter city was known as the “Crown Rubies”.

Note: Western Ghat shared site

♦West Bengal (1 Heritage site,1 Shared site)

  • Sundarbans National Park (World Heritage Tag-1987): The Sundarbans National Park, the largest estuarine mangrove forest in the world is a national park, tiger reserve, World Heritage Site and a biosphere reserve located in the Sundarbans Ganges river delta bordering the Bay of Bengal, in West Bengal.
  • Mountain Railways of India, Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Darjeeling (World Heritage Tag-1999): The World Heritage UNESCO recognition of these mountain railways of India has been stated as for being “outstanding examples of bold, ingenious engineering solutions for the problem of establishing an effective rail link through a rugged, mountainous terrain”. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was recognized first in 1999.

Note: Mountain Railways of India shared site

♦Uttarakhand (1 Heritage site)

  • Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (World Heritage Tag-1988): The Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks are nestled high in West Himalaya. Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. It is located in the Garhwal Himalaya of Chamoli District of Uttarakhand. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep.

♦Delhi (3 Heritage site)

  • Humayun’s Tomb (World Heritage Tag-1993): Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi, the first tomb built with several innovations, set at the centre of luxurious gardens with water channels, was the precursor monument to the Taj Mahal (built a century later). It was built in 1570 and was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Monument in 1993 for its cultural importance.
  • Qutb Minar and its Monuments (World Heritage Tag-1993): The Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi, located to the south of Delhi, is a complex with the Qutb Minar as the centre piece, which is a red sandstone tower of 72.5 metres (238 ft) height with a base of 14.32 metres (47.0 ft) reducing to 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) diameter at the top. Built in the beginning of the 13th century, the complex of structures comprises itineraries, the Alai Darwaza Gate (1311), the Alai Minar (an incomplete mound of the intended Minar or tower), the Qubbat-ul-Islam Mosque (the earliest existing mosque in India), the tomb of Iltutmish, and an Iron Pillar.
  • Red Fort Complex (World Heritage Tag-2007): The Red Fort Complex, also known as Lal Qila is a palace fort built in the 17th century by Shahjahan (1628–58), the fifth Mughal emperor as part of his new capital city of Shahjahanabad.

♦Himachal Pradesh (1 Heritage site,1 Shared site)  

  • Mountain Railways of India, Kalka-Shimla Railway (World Heritage Tag-2008): In 2008 the Kalka–Shimla Railway was further added as an extension; and the three together have been titled as Mountain Railways of India under Criteria: ii, iv under the region in the Asia-Pacific. The claim of the Matheran Hill Railway, the fourth mountain railway, is pending acceptance by the international body.
  • Great Himalayan National Park (World Heritage Tag-2008): The Great Himalayan National Park at Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, is characterized by high alpine peaks, alpine meadows and riverine forests.

Note: Mountain Railways of India shared site

♦Bihar (2 Heritage site)

  • Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (World Heritage Tag-2002): The Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (Buddha Gaya).The first temple was built by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC (260 BC) around the Bodhi Tree Ficus religiosa (to the west of the temple). However, the temples seen now are dated between 5th and 6th centuries AD. The structures have been built in bricks. Revered and sanctified as the place where Siddhartha Gautama Buddha was enlightened in 531 BC at age 35, and then propagated his divine knowledge of Buddhism to the world, it has been the ultimate temple for reverential worship, over the last several centuries, by Buddhists of all denominations, from all over the world who visit on pilgrimage.
  • Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda (World Heritage Tag-2016): The Nalanda Mahavihara site is in the State of Bihar, in north-eastern India. It comprises the archaeological remains of a monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. It includes stupas, shrines, viharas (residential and educational buildings) and important art works in stucco, stone and metal. Nalanda stands out as the most ancient university of the Indian Subcontinent. It engaged in the organized transmission of knowledge over an uninterrupted period of 800 years.

♦Gujarat (3 Heritage site,1 Shared site)  

  • Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (World Heritage Tag-2002):  There is a concentration of largely unexcavated archaeological, historic and living cultural heritage properties cradled in an impressive landscape which includes prehistoric (chalcolithic) sites, a hill fortress of an early Hindu capital, and remains of the 16th-century capital of the state of Gujarat. The site also includes, among other vestiges, fortifications, palaces, religious buildings, residential precincts, agricultural structures and water installations, from the 8th to the 14th centuries.
  • Rani ki vav (The Queen’s Stepwell) (World Heritage Tag-2014): Rani ki vav (The Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat, is a famous stepwell It is famous for its size and sculpture. Most of the sculptures are in devotion to Vishnu, in the forms of Dus-Avatars Kalki, Rama, Mahisasurmardini, Narsinh, Vaman, Varahi and others representing their return to the world. Nagkanya, Yogini beautiful women – Apsara showcasing 16 different styles of make-up to look more attractive called Solah-shringar.
  • Historic City of Ahmedabad (World Heritage Tag-2017): The walled city of Ahmedabad, founded by Sultan Ahmad Shah I in the 15th century, on the eastern bank of the Sabarmati River, presents a rich architectural heritage from the sultanate period, notably the Bhadra citadel, the walls and gates of the Fort city and numerous mosques and tombs as well as important Hindu and Jain temples of later periods.

Note: Western Ghat shared site

♦Sikkim (1 Heritage site)

  • Khangchendzonga National Park (World Heritage Tag-2016): Located at the heart of the Himalayan range in northern India (State of Sikkim), the Khangchendzonga National Park includes a unique diversity of plains, valleys, lakes, glaciers and spectacular, snow-capped mountains covered with ancient forests, including the world’s third highest peak, Mount Khangchendzonga.

♦Chandigarh (1 Heritage site)

  • The Architectural Work Of Le Corbusier (World Heritage Tag-2016):  Chosen from the work of Le Corbusier, the 17 sites comprising this transnational serial property are spread over seven countries. Urban and Architectural Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh, is home to numerous architectural projects of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki and Albert Mayer.


  • Western Ghat (World Heritage Tag-2016):  Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster, Periyar Sub-Cluster, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, Nilgiri Sub-Cluster, Talakaveri Sub-Cluster (five properties), Kudremukh Sub-Cluster (five properties), Sahyadri Sub-Cluster.
  • The Western Ghats, also known as the Sahyadri Mountains, a mountain range along the western side of India and one of the world’s ten “Hottest biodiversity hotspots” (sub cluster nomination). A total of thirty nine properties (including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests) were designated as World Heritage Sites – twenty in the state of Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.
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Q1. Every year, on which of the following day, the World Health Organization and partners mark World No Tobacco Day (WNTD)?

(a) 12 August

(b) 02 September

(c31 May

(d) 27 June

(e) 24 October

Q2. The World Milk Day (WMD) is observed every year by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on June 1 to recognize the importance of milk as a global food. What is the theme of the 2018 World Milk Day (WMD) in India?

(a) Be Strong Be Healthy

(b) Natural Drink for Health

(c) Milk: A Healthy Drink

(d) Drink Move Be Strong

(e) None of these

Q3.  The Somasila Dam is built across the Penna River near Somasila in Nellore district of which state?

(a) Kerala

(b) Telangana

(c) Karnataka

(d) Andhra Pradesh

(e) Odisha

Q4. Name the city hosted the 49th Conference of Governors?

(a) Jaipur

(b) Lucknow

(c) New Delhi

(d) Mumbai

(e) None of these

Q5. What is the Capital city of Belarus?

(a) Kiev

(b) Minsk

(c) Warsaw

(d) Vilnius

(e) Riga

Q6. Karwar is a city in Karnataka, situated on which river?

(a) Panchaganga River

(b) Kali River

(c) Minachil River

(d) Savitri river

(e) None of these

Q7. Garba is a famous dance performed by women in which state?

(a) Punjab

(b) Rajasthan

(c) Gujarat

(d) Odisha

(e) None of these

Q8. Pattadakkal Dance Festival celebrated in which state?

(a) Odisha

(b) Andhra Pradesh

(c) Karnataka

(d) Telangana

(e) None of these

Q9.  Kudremukh National Park is located in which state?

(a) Karnataka

(b) Tamil Nadu

(c) Andhra Pradesh

(d) Telangana

(e) Kerala

Q10. Where is the headquarter of First Rand Bank?

(a) USA

(b) South Africa

(c) Brazil

(d) Australia

(e) None of these

Answer key


Exp. Every year, on 31 May, World Health Organization and partners mark World No Tobacco Day (WNTD).  The theme of World No Tobacco Day 2018 is “Tobacco and heart disease.”


Exp. The World Milk Day (WMD) is observed every year by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on June 1 to recognize the importance of milk as a global food. WMD 2018 theme in India is “Drink Move Be Strong”. Milk is enriched with nutrients like calcium, protein, vitamin B2, potassium, iodine, etc.


Exp. The Somasila Dam is a dam constructed across the Penna River near Somasila, Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Exp. The President of India, Ram Nath Kovind, inaugurated the two-day Conference of Governors at the Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi.


Exp. Minsk is the Capital city of Belarus. Its Currency is Belarusian ruble.


Exp. Karwar is a city in Karnataka being the head quarter of Uttara Kannada district in the Southern western coast of India. It is situated between Sahyadri ever green forest in east, blue Arabian Sea to the west, towards south ends with harbor and North the beautiful Kali river.


Exp.Garba is customarily performed by women, the dance involves circular patterns of movement and rhythmic clapping. It popularly performed during Navratri. The word comes from “garbha deep” which is translated as either light in the inner sanctum of the temple or lamp inside a perforated earthen pot (which is often used in the dance).


Exp. Pattadakkal Dance Festival is an annual dance festival which is held annually in Pattadakkal, a small town located in the southern state of Karnataka, India.


Exp. Designated as national park in the year 1987, Kudremukh National Park is located in the Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka state.


Exp. FirstRand Limited, also referred to as FirstRand Group is the holding company of FirstRand Bank, and is a financial services provider in South Africa. It is one of the financial services providers licensed by the Reserve Bank of South Africa, the national banking regulator.


Q1. Name the First Bank in India.

(a) Bank of Calcutta

(b) General Bank of India

(c) Bank of Hindustan

(d) Bank of Madras

(e) None of these

Q2. Name the First Governor of RBI.

(a) M. Narasimham

(b) James Braid Taylor

(c) Mr. C D Deshmukh

(d) Mr. Osborne Smith

(e) None of these

Q3. Name the First Indian governor of RBI.

(a) M. Narasimham

(b) Benegal Rama Rau

(c) Mr. C D Deshmukh

(d) P. C. Bhattacharya

(e) None of these

Q4.Name the First Bank to Introduce ATM in India.

(a) HSBC


(c) SBI    (d) HDFC

(e) None of these

Q5.Name the First Bank to introduce saving Bank in India.

(a) Bank of Hindustan

(b) Syndicate Bank

(c) Bengal Bank

(d) Presidency Bank

Q6.Name the First Bank to Introduce Cheque system in India.

(a) Central Bank of India

(b) Presidency bank

(c) Bengal Bank

(d) HSBC

(e) None of these

Q7.Name the First Bank to introduce Internet Banking.

(a) Axis Bank

(b) HDFC Bank

(c) SBI    (d) ICICI Bank

Q8. Name the First Bank to introduce Mutual Fund.

(a) ICICI Bank

(b) SBI

(c) Central Bank of India

(d) Bank of Baroda

(e) None of these

Q9.Name the First Bank to introduce Credit Card in India.

(a) SBI

(b) Central Bank of India


(d) Punjab National Bank

(e) None of these

Q10.Name the First Foreign Bank in India.

(a) Chinatrust Commercial Bank

(b) United Overseas Bank

(c) Federal Bank

(d) Comptoir d’Escompte de Paris

(e) None of these


Ans.1. (c)

Exp.Bank of Hindustan (1770-1832), a now defunct bank, considered as among the first modern banks in colonial India. It was established by the agency house of Alexander and Company.


Exp.Sir Osborne Arkell Smith was the first Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, a post he held from 1 April 1935 to 30 June 1937 while C. D. Deshmukh was the first Indian governor.


Exp.Sir Chintaman Dwarakanath Deshmukh was an Indian civil servant and the first Indian to be appointed as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India in 1943 by the British Raj authorities while Sir Osborne Arkell Smith was the first Governor of the Reserve Bank of India.


Exp.HSBC (The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation) was the first bank to introduce the ATM concept in India way back in 1987. It was from Diebold and installed at Andheri, Mumbai.


Exp.Savings account system in India was started by Presidency Bank.

Ans.6. (c)

Exp.Cheque system was first introduced by Bengal Bank which was established in 1784.


Exp.ICICI Bank was the first Indian bank to provide internet banking facility.


Exp.The mutual fund industry in India originally began in 1963 with the Unit Trust of India (UTI) as a Government of India and the Reserve Bank of India initiative. Launched in 1987, SBI Mutual Fund became the first non-UTI mutual fund in India.


Exp.Central Bank of India was the first public bank to introduce Credit card.


Exp.The Comptoir d’Escompte de Paris opened a branch in Calcutta in 1860, and another in Bombay in 1862; branches followed in Madras and Pondicherry. HSBC established itself in Bengal in 1869.

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Modern & Medieval History || for NTPC-PSEB CLERK-PPSC-PATWARI-PSSSB-SSC

Q1. The offsprings of which Mughal emperor were born in a Sufi’s Khanqah instead of the Mughal haram?
(a) Humayun
(b) Akbar
(c) Shahjahan
(d) Aurangzeb

Q2. Historian Abul Fazal was killed by
(a) Hemu
(b) Bairam Khan
(c) Udai Singh
(d) Bir Singhdeo Bundela

Q3.Which among the following was also known as Bandobast system?
(a) Zabti
(b) parukh
(c) Nasaq
(d) Kankut

Q4. Why is Rann of Kutch of India famous for?
(a) Tidal and flats
(b) Fertile soil
(c) Dense Vegetation
(d) All are correct

Q5. What is the position of the Earth when it is at the greatest distance from the sun?
(a) Aphelion
(b) Apogee
(c) Perihelion
(d) Perigee

Q6. The Yellow river passes through which country?
(a) Russia
(b) China
(c) USA

Q7. Capital City of Myanmar is _________.
(a) Naypyidaw
(b) Yangon
(c) Rangoon
(d) Thimphu

Q8. What is the capital of Argentina?
(a) Buenos Aires
(b) Copenhagen
(c) Vienna
(d) Ottawa

Q9. Achras sapote is the scientific name of
(a) Custard Apple
(b) Gulmohar
(c) Tamarind
(d) Chiku

Q10. Prawn belongs to the phylum
(a) Arthropoda
(b) Cnidaria
(c) Echinodermata
(d) Chordata

Sol. Akbar son Jahangir born in a Sufi’s Khanqah instead of the Mughal haram. Jahangir was eldest son of akbar.
Sol. Abu’l Fazl was assassinated while he was returning from the Deccan by Vir Singh Bundela between Sarai Vir and Antri in a plot contrived by Akbar’s eldest son Prince Salim.
Sol Akbar introduced the Dahasala or Zabati system of land revenue collection in 1580-82 to alleviate the problems arising due to fixing prices every year and doing settlements of revenues of previous years.In this system, average produce of ten years was derived. One third of this average produce was fixed in Rupees per Bigha and fixed as share of the state (Mal). Rest two third share was left to the cultivators (Kharaj).
S4. Ans.(a)
Sol.The Great Rann of Kutch is a salt marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat, India. It is famous for tidal and flats
S5. Ans.(a)
Sol.The aphelion is the point in the orbit of an object where it is farthest from the Sun.
S6. Ans.(b)
Sol.Yellow river passes through China.
S7. Ans.(a)
Sol.Capital City of Myanmar is Naypyidaw.
S8. Ans.(a)
Sol. Capital of Argentina is Buenos Aires.
S9. Ans.(d)
Sol. Achras sapote is the scientific name of Chiku.
S10. Ans.(a)
Sol. Prawn belongs to the phylum Arthropoda

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                         INDIAN HISTORY



 The first metal to be extensively used by the people in India was ______.
— Copper
 _______ was the first to discover the traces of the Harappan Civilisation.
— Daya Ram Sahani
 The utensils of the Indus Valley people were mainly made of ________.
— clay
 The most common animal figure found at all the Harappan sites is
________. — unihorn bull
 The term Aryan, Indo-Aryan or Indo-European denotes a _______
concept. — Linguistic
 According to the most widely accepted view, the Aryans originally came
from ______. — Central Asia
 ________ Veda was compiled first. — Rigveda
 _________ Veda deals with magic spells and witchcraft.
— Atharvaveda
 The Vedic religion along with its Later (Vedic) developments is actually
known as ________. — Brahmanism
 The Vedic Aryans first settled in the region of ________.—
 _____ Ved contains the famous Gayatrimantra. — Rigveda
 The famous Gayatrimantra is addressed to ______. — Savita
 Two highest gods in the Vedic religion were _____ and _______.
— Indra, Varuna
 Division of the Vedic society into four classes is clearly mentioned in
the ________ of Rigveda. — Purusa – sukta
 The normal form of government during the Vedic period was ________.
— monarchy
 Two popular Assemblies of the Vedic period were ______ and ______.
— Sabha, Samiti
 After the growth of the Vedic religion the most important development in
the history of the so-called Hinduism was the development of ________.
— Bhagavatism
 Bhagavatism refers to worship of ________. — Vasudeva Krishna
 Vaishnavism , a later development of Bhagavatism, advocates the worship
of ________. — Vishnu and his incarnations
 The founder of Jainism was ________. — Parsvanatha
 Vardhamana Mahavira the 24th Tirthankar of Jainism was born at
_________ and died at _________ — Kundagrama, Pava
 Of the five vows ( Panch Anuvratas) of Jainism four existed before
Mahavira. The one which he added was ________. — celibacy
 Jainism was divided into two sects-Swetambaras (White-clad) and
Digambaras (Sky-clad or naked) – During the reign of the ________.
— Mauryas
 The name Buddha means ________. — enlightened

 Buddhism was divided into Mahayana and Hinayana during the reign of
________. — Kanishka
 The great exponent of Mahayana Buddhism was ______.
— Nagarjuna
 Jatakas are the stories of _________. — Buddha’s previous lives
 Outside India, Buddhism was first accepted in _______.
— Sri Lanka
 When Alexander invaded India, Magadha was being ruled by the ________.
— Nandas
 The decline of the Nandas at the hands of Kautilya and Chandragupta
Maurya has been vividly portrayed in the Sanskrit play written by Kalidasa
is _______. — Malavikagnimitram
 The Mauryan sculptors had attained the highest perfection in the
carving of ________. — animal figures
 _______ usurped power from the Mauryas after killing the last Mauryan
ruler Brihadratha — Pushyamitra Sunga
 The most famous Indo-Greek ruler of India, famous for his sense of
justice and dialogues with a Buddhist monk Nagasena (as described in
the Buddhist work Milindpanho) was ________. — Menander
 The first great empire to the south of the Vindhayas was of the _______.
— Satavahanas
 Gautama Buddha was brought up by ______. — Mahaprajapati
 The phrase the ‘Light of Asia’ is applied to _______. — The Buddha
 The Eight-fold path was enunciated by _______. — The Buddha
 The Buddhist Doctrines were written in ______ language. — Pali
 The first Buddhist Council was held at _______. — Rajagriha
 Ashoka was much influenced by a Buddhist monk called _______.
— Upagupta
 Megasthenes visited India during the period of ______.
— Chandragupta Maurya
 Megasthenes was the Ambassador of ______. — Selukos Nikator
 “The Indica” was written by ______. — Megasthenes
 Mauryan Dynasty was founded by _______. — Chandragupta Maurya
 The Rig Veda consists of ________ hyms. — 1028
 _________ Veda is rendered musically. — Sama Veda
 ________ was the hero of a famous drama Malvikagnimitra written by
Kalidasa. — Agnimitra
 The duties of Dharmamahamatras are explained in the Minor Rock Edict
No ._______. — V
 The Vishnu Purana gives an account of ______ dynasty.
— Mauryan
 A well-organised State machinery was introduced for the first time by
_______. — the Mauryas
 The last Mauryan king was _______. — Brihadratha
 Bimbisara was succeeded by _______. — Ajatasatru
 The Upanishads are separated from the Brahmanas by treatises called
_______. — Aranyakas

 ‘Atman is everything and everything is Atman’ is the …… doctrine
— Pantheistic
 The salient feature of the Rig Vedic religion was worship of ________.
— Nature
 When Alexander invaded India, Texila was ruled by ________.—
 There are similarities between the seals found at Mohenjo-Daro and
……. — Sumeria
 Megasthenese was a Greek Ambassador sent to the court of the king ……
— Chandragupta Maurya
 Mudra Rakshasa was written by _______. — Visakadatta
 Dharmamahamatras were _________ during the Mauryans.
— Officials
 Kanva dynasty was established by _______. — Vasudeva
 Kharavela of Kalinga was a follower of the religion _______.—
 The capital of the king Kharavela of Kalinga was ______.
— Kalinganagara
 Buddha delivered his first sermon at _______. — Sarnath
 The Buddha attained Nirvana at _______. — Kusinagara
 The proceedings of the Third Buddhist Council led to the issue of
______ Edict. — Sarnath
 The most important Pahlava ruler was ________.
— Gondophernes
 St Thomas died a martyr at _______. — Madras
 The Capital of Kanishka Empire was _______. — Peshawar
 The fourth Buddhist Council was held at _____. — Kundalavana
 Alexander was the son of Philip II of ________. — Macedonia
 Porus was defeated by Alexander at the battle of _______.
— Hydaspes
 Alexander the Great died at _______. — Babylon
 The monolithic image of Jain Saint ‘Gomatiswara’ is at _______.
— Saravanabelgola
 _______ was the mother of Vardhamana Mahavira. — Trisala
 The Monk whom Chandragupta Maurya accompanied to South India was
________. — Bhadrabahu
 Megasthenes was succeeded by _______ as ambassador.
— Deimachos
 The Saka Era was founded by _______. — Kanishka
 The famous Indo-Greek King who embraced Buddhism was……..
— Menender
 Kanishka was the follower of ________. — Mahayanism
 The Sunga ruler Bhaga erected a monolithic ‘Garuda’ at _______.
— Besnagar
 Vardhamana Mahavira died at ______. — Pavapuri
 The city of Pataliputra was founded at the junction of the Ganges and
the _______. — Sone
The Nanda dynasty was established by _______. — Mahapadma
 Alexander was trained by _______. — Aristotle
 Vardhamana Mahavira was born at _______. — Kundagrama
 Bimbisara was succeeded by _________. — Ajatasatru
 Alexander sent back home a portion of his army under an admiral called
…… — Nearchos
 _______ was another name of Pataliputra — Kusumapura
 The founder of the Achaemenian Empire was ________. — Cyrus
 The most powerful ruler of the Cheras was ______. — Senguttuvan
 A temple for ‘Patini devi’ was constructed by ______. — Senguttuvan
 During the 4th century AD the Western Satraps were conquered by
the _______ rulers. — Sassanian
 Sudarsana lake was reconstructed by ______. — Rudradaman I
 The first ruler of the Satavahanas was _______. — Simuka
 Satavahana rule was extended to the Coromandal Coast by ________.
— Pulumayi II
 Chashtana was the Satraps of ______. — Malwa
 Srikakulam was the capital of _______. — Andhras
 The ancient Chola kingdom existed in the delta of the river _______.
— Cauvery
 The first Persian ruler who occupied part of Indian territory was ________.
— Cyrus
 The fourth and the last Buddhist Council held at Kashmir was convened
by _______. — Kanishka
 The first image of the Buddha was carved out during the reign of _______.
— Kanishka I
 _______ was the personal physician of Kanishka and also the author of a
famous treatise on the Indian system of medicine. — Charaka
 The worship of images (of Buddha) in India began during the period
________. — Kushana
 The last great ruling dynasty of Magadha was ________. — Gupta
 Kanishka is associated with an era which is known as ________.
— Saka era
 The greatest conqueror among the Gupta rulers was ________.
— Samudragupta
 The famous Mehrauli Iron Pillar Inscription describes the conquest of
______. — Chandragupta II
 The Gupta king who is known in the Indian legends as Vikramaditya
was _______. — Chandragupta II
 The Chinese traveller Fa-hien visited India and left a detailed account of
the reign of _______. — Chandragupta II
 The foremost astronomer and mathematician of the Gupta period was
______. — Aryabhatta
 The Chinese traveller Huen Tsang, called the Prince of Pilgrims visited
India during the reign of ______. — Harsha
 Harshacharita the biography of Harsha, was written by _______.
— Banabhatta

 Harsha was the last great royal patron of the religion ______.
— Buddhism
 Two great Buddhist universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were
patronised by the ______ rulers. — Palas
 The Chahamana (or Chauhan) king who founded the city of Ajmer and
made it his capital was _______. — Ajayaraj
 Kalhana’s Rajatarangini is a work on the history of ______.
— Kashmir
 Of the four main Chalukya dynasties of early medieval India Pulkesin II,
who defeated Harsha, belonged to Chalukya dynasty of ________.
— Badami or Vatapi
 The capital of the Pallavas was ______. — Kanchi or Conjeevaram
 The foundation of the Dravidian style of architecture in South India was
laid by ______. — Pallavas
 The Pallava king responsible for carving the Rathas of Mahabalipuram
was ________. — Narsimhavarman
 The Chola king, who after successfully raiding Bengal took the title of
Gangaikonda and also founded a new capital (Gangaikonda Cholapuram)
was ______. — Rajendra I
 The masterpiece of Chola sculpture is the famous Nataraja or the Dancing
Shiva image at ______. — Chidambaram
 A contemporary rival dynasty of the Cholas in South India was ______.
— Pandyas of Madurai
 The Indian king who provided the most spirited and successful resistance
against Mahmud of Ghazni was _______.
— Chandela king Vidyadhar
 The Indian ruler who, unable to bear the humiliation of his defeat at the
hands of Mahmud of Ghazni burnt himself to death was _______.
— Shahi king Jayapala
 The famous ruler of ancient India who is said to have been converted to
Jainism, towards the end of his life, is _______. — Chandragupta
 The Harappan economy was primarily ________ in nature.
— Urban
 _______ was the first Muslim invader to enter India.
— Mohammed-bin-Qasim
 The best specimens of Mauryan art are represented by their _______.
— Pillars
 According to Strabo, the Tamil kingdom to first send emissaries to meet
Augustin in Athens in 20 BC, was _______. — Pandya
 The word ‘Veda’ has been derived from the root word ‘Vid’ which means
_______. — Knowledge
 The Kushan rule was brought to an end by _______.
— The Hindu Shahi Dynasty
 Ashoka has been particularly influenced by the Buddhist monk ________.
— Upagupta
 During Kanishka’s reign, the centre of political activity shifted from
Magadha to ______. — Purushapura (Peshawar)
 Name the Sultan who resorted to the extreme step of abolishing as many
as 24 taxes. — Firoze Tughlaq

 Who had got the Konark Sun Temple constructed?
— Narasimha Deva II
 In which language did Krishna Deva Raya, who was also a scholar of
repute, write the Amukta-Malyada? — Sanskrit
 Sultan Mahmud’s mission of plundering several temples for their wealth
included the famous __________ temple as well. — Somnath
 Whom did Muhammad Ghori kill in the Second Battle of Tarain?
— Prithviraj
 Who wrote Mrichchhakatika (Clay Cart)? — Sudraka
 After the partition of India, the largest number of Harappan towns and
settlements have been found in the state of ______. — Gujarat
 The Indus Valley Civilization can be said to belong to the _________ age.
— Bronze
 Who among the following used to hold a religious assembly at Prayag
every five year? — Harshvardhana
 Gautam Buddha as a prince was known as _______. — Siddhartha
 Architectural developments in India manifested themselves in their full
glory during the period of the ______. — Guptas
 The deep, transforming effect that the Kalinga War had on Ashoka has
been described in ________ edicts. — Rock
 The proud title of ‘Vikramaditya’ had been assumed by _______.
— Chandragupta II
 _______ was the first metal to be discovered and used as tools by humans?
— Copper
 The Upanishads are a series of books devoted to ______.
— Philosophy
 Which of the following temples has acquired the name of the Black
Pagoda? — Sun Temple
 Name the later Gupta ruler who had performed the Ashwamedha Yajna
(Horse Sacrifice) and assumed the imperial title of Maharajadhiraj?
— Adityasen
 With what subject does the Mitakshara deal? — Law
 By whom had the Stupa at Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh been built?
— Ashoka
 The author of Ashtadhyayai is _______. — Panini
 In the Rigvedic period, after the king the next most important functionary
of the state was the _______. — Purohita
 The concluding portions of the Brahmanas are called the _______.
— Satpathas
 What does the Yajur Veda contain? — Hymns and rituals
 The Mahajanapada that acquired prominence to become an empire was
that of ______. — Magadha
 What is the present name of Dwara Samudra, the ancient capital of the
Hoysalas? — Halebid
 The Ajanta cave paintings mostly belong to the period of the ________.
— Guptas
 Who was the founder of the Sankhya School of philosophy?
— Kapila

Current Affairs Latest Posts POLITY AND CONSTITUTION

PUNJAB GOVT-PPSC-PATWARI-PSSSB-PSEB-Indian Polity and Fundamental Rights in Indian Constitution

Originally, the Constitution provided for seven Fundamental Rights / मूलतः, संविधान में सात मौलिक अधिकारों के लिए प्रदान किया:-
1. Right to equality (Articles 14–18) 
2. Right to freedom (Articles 19–22) 
3. Right against exploitation (Articles 23–24) 
4. Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25–28) 
5. Cultural and educational rights (Articles 29–30) 
6. Right to property (Article 31) 
7. Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32) 
The right to property was deleted from the Fundamental Rights by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978. It is made a legal right under Article 300-A of the Constitution. So, at present, there are only six Fundamental Rights. 


•Parliament is the supreme legislative body of a country.
Parliament comprises of:(Art.79)b)Lok Sabha (House of the People)
c)Rajya Sabha (Council of States)


-Lok Sabha, as the name itself signifies, is the body of representatives of the people.

-It is the Lower House of Parliament.

-Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies.

-They hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers.

-The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is 552.

-Which is made up by election of upto 530 members to represent the States, upto 20 members to represent the Union Territories. –
-Two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the Hon’ble President, if,  in his/her opinion, that community is not adequately represented in the House.
-An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies’ boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of which was conducted in 2001.

-In India, such Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times – in 1952 under the Delimitation Commission Act, 1952, in 1963 under Delimitation Commission Act, 1962, in 1973 under Delimitation Act, 1972 and in 2002 under Delimitation Act, 2002.
-The Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952.

-Constitution 61st Amendment Act (1987) has reduced the Age of voting from 21 to 18 years.

Qualifications for Lok Sabaha:(Art.-84)
-He / She should be a citizen of India, and must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
-He / She should not be less than 25 years of age.
-He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
-He / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law; and
-He / She should have his/her name in the electoral rolls in any part of the country.
Speaker and Deputy Speaker:(Art.-93)
– In the Lok Sabha, both presiding officers—the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker- are elected from among its members by a simple majority of members present and voting in the House.

-Shri G. V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha (15 May 1952– 27 February 1956)

-Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first Deputy Speaker (30 May 1952 – 7 March 1956).

-Sumitra Mahajan was elected as the speaker in the 16th Lok Sabha, and is its second woman speaker and

-Shri M. Thambidurai as the deputy speaker.
Powers of Lok Sabha:
-Motions of no confidence against the government can be introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha.
-Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, and upon being passed, are sent to the Rajya Sabha, where it can be deliberated on for up to 14 days.

Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:

Budget session: February to May.

Monsoon session: July to September.

Winter session: November to mid December.

Question Hour:

-The first hour of every sitting is called Question Hour.

Zero Hour:

-The time immediately following the Question Hour has come to be known as “Zero Hour”.

-It starts at around 12 noon and members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise issues of importance during this time.

Parliamentary Committees:

There are primarily two kinds of parliamentary committees based on their nature –

-Parliament Standing Committees (PSC) – Permanent in nature, reconstituted time to time with every new election.

-Ad hoc Committees – Created for specific purpose and ceases to exist when that purpose is achieved.